Numeracy Icon Array

University of Michigan

Sometimes known as pictographs, icon arrays are used as an evidence-based standard in medical risk communication. Icon arrays use a matrix of icons to represent an at-risk population, simultaneously displaying both the number of expected events and the number of expected non-events. This tool can be read simply by counting icons and clearly shows the part-whole relationship in both relative count and relative area. It is an example of Numeracy, which is how we communicate about numbers. Make your own downloadable, linked, or embedded visual graphic of risk/frequency.


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